Cardiology Quiz #13: Physiological and Pathological Murmurs

1. A 30-year-old male presents with a history of fatigue and shortness of breath on exertion. On physical examination, you hear a loud holosystolic murmur at the apex, radiating to the axilla. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis? 

Question 1 of 5

2. During a physical examination, a 4-year-old child is found to have a harsh, systolic ejection murmur heard best at the right upper sternal border without radiation. The child is asymptomatic with a normal growth pattern. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this finding? 

Question 2 of 5

3. A 65-year-old woman with a history of rheumatic fever during childhood presents with complaints of difficulty breathing, especially when lying flat. On examination, you note a low-pitched, rumbling, mid-diastolic murmur best heard at the apex with the patient in the left lateral decubitus position. Which of the following valvular abnormalities is most likely present? 

Question 3 of 5

4. A 55-year-old man with a history of hypertension and smoking presents with a crescendo-decrescendo systolic ejection murmur heard best at the second right intercostal space and radiating to the neck. This finding is most consistent with which of the following conditions? 

Question 4 of 5

5. A newborn is diagnosed with a continuous "machinery-like" murmur heard best at the left infraclavicular area on the day of birth. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis? 

Question 5 of 5


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